1983 Film MOVIE POSTER Israel "BLADE RUNNER" Hebrew SCIENCE FICTION Broadside VR

1983 Film MOVIE POSTER Israel

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eBay DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL over 30 years old Hebrew-Israeli SMALL lobby - theatre POSTER for the 1983 ISRAEL premiere release of the legendary CULT NOIR SCIENCE FICTION film  " BLADE RUNNER  " , Starring HARRISON FORD , SEAN YOUNG , DARYL HANNAH , RUTGER HAUER to name only a few.  Directed by RIDLEY SCOTT.  The Hebrew poster was created ESPECIALLY for the Israeli premiere of the film . Please note : This is Made in Israel authentic THEATRE POSTER , Which was published by the Israeli distributors for the Israeli premiere projection of the film in 1983 . Quite archaic Hebrew  ( "A Fascinating Gigantic Film" ) .  you can be certain that this surviving copy is ONE OF ITS KIND. Size around 7" x 12" . The poster is in good condition. Quite clean and fresh.  Folds. Tiny stample holes in its corners. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ). Poster will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed package. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal. SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $17  . Poster will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed package. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated Int'l duration around 14 days. MORE DETAILS : Blade Runner is a 1982 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is a modified film adaptation of the 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick. The film depicts a dystopian Los Angeles in which genetically engineered replicants, which are visually indistinguishable from adult humans, are manufactured by the powerful Tyrell Corporation. The use of replicants on Earth is banned and they are exclusively utilized for dangerous or menial work on off-world colonies. Replicants who defy the ban and return to Earth are hunted down and killed ("retired") by special police operatives known as "Blade Runners". The plot focuses on a group of recently escaped replicants hiding in L.A. and the burnt-out expert Blade Runner, Rick Deckard (Harrison Ford), who reluctantly agrees to take on one more assignment to hunt them down. Blade Runner initially polarized critics: some were displeased with the pacing, while others enjoyed its thematic complexity. The film underperformed in North American theaters but has since become a cult film.[5] Hailed for its production design, depicting a "retrofitted" future,[6] it remains a leading example of the neo-noir genre.[7] It brought the work of Philip K. Dick to the attention of Hollywood and several later films were based on his work.[8] Ridley Scott regards Blade Runner as "probably" his most complete and personal film.[9][10] In 1993, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Blade Runner is now regarded by many critics as one of the best science fiction films ever made. Seven versions of the film have been shown for various markets as a result of controversial changes made by film executives. A Director's Cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to workprint screenings. This, in conjunction with its popularity as a video rental, made it one of the first films released on DVD, resulting in a basic disc with mediocre video and audio quality.[11] In 2007, Warner Bros. released The Final Cut, a 25th anniversary digitally remastered version which is the only one on which Scott had complete artistic freedom[12] and was shown in selected theaters and subsequently released on DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray.[13] Contents 1 Plot2 Themes3 Production 3.1 Casting3.2 Development3.3 Design 3.3.1 Voight-Kampff machine 3.4 Music3.5 Special effects 4 Release 4.1 Critical reception4.2 Accolades4.3 Versions 5 Legacy 5.1 Cultural impact 5.1.1 American Film Institute recognition 5.2 In other media 6 Sequels7 See also8 Notes9 References 9.1 Bibliography 10 External links Plot Note: Since there are several versions of Blade Runner, this summary excludes version-specific events. In Los Angeles, November 2019, ex-police officer Rick Deckard (Harrison Ford) is detained by officer Gaff (Edward James Olmos) and brought to his former supervisor, Bryant (M. Emmet Walsh). Deckard, whose job as a "Blade Runner" was to track down bioengineered beings known as replicants and "retire" (a euphemism for killing) them, is informed that four have come to Earth illegally. As Tyrell Corporation Nexus-6 models, they have only a four-year lifespan and may have come to Earth to try to extend their lives. Deckard watches a video of a Blade Runner named Holden administering the "Voight-Kampff" test designed to distinguish replicants from humans based on their emotional response to questions. The test subject, Leon (Brion James), shoots Holden after Holden asks about Leon's mother. Bryant wants Deckard to retire Leon and the other three replicants: Roy Batty (Rutger Hauer), Zhora (Joanna Cassidy), and Pris (Daryl Hannah). Deckard initially refuses, but after Bryant ambiguously threatens him, he reluctantly agrees. Deckard begins his investigation at the Tyrell Corporation to ensure that the test works on Nexus-6 models. While there, he discovers that Dr. Eldon Tyrell's (Joe Turkel) assistant Rachael (Sean Young) is an experimental replicant who believes herself to be human. Rachael has been given false memories to provide an "emotional cushion". As a result, a more extensive test is required to determine whether she is a replicant. Events are then set into motion that pit Deckard's search for the replicants against their search for Tyrell to force him to extend their lives. Roy and Leon investigate a replicant eye-manufacturing laboratory and learn of J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson), a gifted genetic designer who works closely with Tyrell. Rachael visits Deckard at his apartment to prove her humanity by showing him a family photo, but after Deckard reveals that her memories are implants from Tyrell's niece, she leaves his apartment in tears. Meanwhile, Pris locates Sebastian and manipulates him to gain his trust. While searching Leon's hotel room, Deckard finds a photo of Zhora and a synthetic snake scale that leads him to a strip club where Zhora works. Deckard kills Zhora and shortly after is told by Bryant to also retire Rachael, who has disappeared from the Tyrell Corporation. After Deckard spots Rachael in a crowd, he is attacked by Leon, but Rachael kills Leon using Deckard's dropped pistol. The two return to Deckard's apartment, and during an intimate discussion, he promises not to hunt her; as she abruptly tries to leave, Deckard physically restrains her, forcing her to kiss him. Arriving at Sebastian's apartment, Roy tells Pris the others are dead. Sympathetic to their plight, Sebastian reveals that because of "Methuselah Syndrome", a genetic premature aging disorder, his life will also be cut short. Sebastian and Roy gain entrance into Tyrell's secure penthouse, where Roy demands more life from his maker. Tyrell tells him that it is impossible. Roy confesses that he has done "questionable things" which Tyrell dismisses, praising Roy's advanced design and accomplishments in his short life. Roy kisses Tyrell, then kills him. Sebastian runs for the elevator followed by Roy, who then rides the elevator down alone. Though not shown, it is implied by Bryant via police radio that Roy also kills Sebastian. Upon entering Sebastian's apartment, Deckard is ambushed by Pris, but he manages to kill her just as Roy returns. As Roy's body begins to shut down, he chases Deckard through the building, ending up on the roof. Deckard tries to jump to an adjacent roof, but misses and is left hanging precariously between buildings. Roy makes the jump with ease, and as Deckard's grip loosens, Roy hoists him onto the roof, saving him. As Roy's life runs out, he delivers a monologue about how his memories "will be lost like tears in the rain"; Roy dies in front of Deckard, who watches silently. Gaff arrives and shouts across to Deckard, "It's too bad she won't live, but then again, who does?" Deckard returns to his apartment and finds the door ajar, but Rachael is safe, asleep in his bed. As they leave, Deckard notices a small tin-foil origami unicorn on the floor, a familiar calling card that brings back to him Gaff's final words. Deckard and Rachael quickly leave the apartment block (and in an extended scene in the original theatrical release, they travel into daylight and an idyllic pastoral landscape). Themes Main article: Themes in Blade Runner A shot of the Tyrell penthouse. The dark and shadowy elements of film-noir cinematography are clearly visible. Although Blade Runner is ostensibly an action film, it operates on multiple dramatic and narrative levels. It is indebted to film noir conventions: the femme fatale; protagonist-narration (removed in later versions); dark and shadowy cinematography; and the questionable moral outlook of the hero – in this case, extended to include reflections upon the nature of his own humanity.[14][15] It is a literate science fiction film, thematically enfolding the philosophy of religion and moral implications of human mastery of genetic engineering in the context of classical Greek drama and hubris.[16] It also draws on Biblical images, such as Noah's flood,[17] and literary sources, such as Frankenstein.[18] Linguistically, the theme of mortality is subtly reiterated in the chess game between Roy and Tyrell, based on the famous Immortal Game of 1851,[19] though Scott has said that was coincidental.[20] Blade Runner delves into the implications of technology on the environment and on society by reaching to the past, using literature, religious symbolism, classical dramatic themes, and film noir. This tension between past, present, and future is mirrored in the retrofitted future of Blade Runner, which is high-tech and gleaming in places but decayed and old elsewhere. Ridley Scott described the film as: "extremely dark, both literally and metaphorically, with an oddly masochistic feel", in an interview by Lynn Barber for the British Sunday newspaper The Observer in 2002. Scott "liked the idea of exploring pain" in the wake of his brother's skin cancer death: "When he was ill, I used to go and visit him in London, and that was really traumatic for me."[10] An aura of paranoia suffuses the film: corporate power looms large; the police seem omnipresent; vehicle and warning lights probe into buildings; and the consequences of huge biomedical power over the individual are explored – especially the consequences for replicants of their implanted memories. Control over the environment is depicted as taking place on a vast scale, hand in hand with the absence of any natural life, with artificial animals substituting for their extinct predecessors. This oppressive backdrop explains the frequently referenced migration of humans to extra-terrestrial ("off-world") colonies.[21] The dystopian themes explored in Blade Runner are an early example of cyberpunk concepts expanding into film. Eyes are a recurring motif, as are manipulated images, calling into question reality and our ability to accurately perceive and remember it.[22][23][24] These thematic elements provide an atmosphere of uncertainty for Blade Runner‍  '​s central theme of examining humanity. In order to discover replicants, an empathy test is used, with a number of its questions focused on the treatment of animals – seemingly an essential indicator of someone's "humanity". The replicants appear to show compassion and concern for one another and are juxtaposed against human characters who lack empathy while the mass of humanity on the streets is cold and impersonal. The film goes so far as to put in doubt whether Deckard is human, and forces the audience to re-evaluate what it means to be human.[25] The question of whether Deckard is intended to be a human or a replicant has been an ongoing controversy since the film's release.[26] Both Michael Deeley and Harrison Ford wanted Deckard to be human while Hampton Fancher preferred ambiguity.[27] Ridley Scott has confirmed that in his vision Deckard is a replicant.[28][29] Deckard's unicorn dream sequence, inserted into the Director's Cut, coinciding with Gaff's parting gift of an origami unicorn is seen by many as showing that Deckard is a replicant – as Gaff could have accessed Deckard's implanted memories.[18][30] The interpretation that Deckard is a replicant is challenged by others who believe the unicorn imagery shows that the characters, whether human or replicant, share the same dreams and recognize their affinity,[31] or that the absence of a decisive answer is crucial to the film's main theme.[32] The inherent ambiguity and uncertainty of the film, as well as its textual richness, have permitted viewers to see it from their own perspectives.[33] Production Casting See also: List of Blade Runner characters Casting the film proved troublesome, particularly for the lead role of Deckard. Screenwriter Hampton Fancher envisioned Robert Mitchum as Deckard and wrote the character's dialogue with Mitchum in mind.[34] Director Ridley Scott and the film's producers spent months meeting and discussing the role with Dustin Hoffman, who eventually departed over differences in vision.[34] Harrison Ford was ultimately chosen for several reasons, including his performance in the Star Wars films, Ford's interest in the Blade Runner story, and discussions with Steven Spielberg who was finishing Raiders of the Lost Ark at the time and strongly praised Ford's work in the film.[34] Following his success in films like Star Wars (1977) and Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), Ford was looking for a role with dramatic depth.[35] According to production documents, several actors were considered for the role, including Gene Hackman, Sean Connery, Jack Nicholson, Paul Newman, Clint Eastwood, Tommy Lee Jones, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Al Pacino, and Burt Reynolds.[34] One role that was not difficult to cast was Rutger Hauer as Roy Batty, the violent yet thoughtful leader of the replicants.[36] Scott cast Hauer without having met him, based solely on Hauer's performances in Paul Verhoeven's movies Scott had seen (Katie Tippel, Soldier of Orange and Turkish Delight).[34] Hauer's portrayal of Batty was regarded by Philip K. Dick as, "the perfect Batty—cold, Aryan, flawless".[37] Of the many films Hauer has done, Blade Runner is his favorite. As he explained in a live chat in 2001, "Blade Runner needs no explanation. It just [is]. All of the best. There is nothing like it. To be part of a real masterpiece which changed the world's thinking. It's awesome."[38] Hauer wrote his character's "tears in rain" speech himself and presented the words to Scott on set prior to filming. Blade Runner used a number of then-lesser-known actors: Sean Young portrays Rachael, an experimental replicant implanted with the memories of Tyrell's niece, causing her to believe she is human;[39] Nina Axelrod auditioned for the role.[34] Daryl Hannah portrays Pris, a "basic pleasure model" replicant; Stacey Nelkin auditioned for the role, but was given another part in the film, which was ultimately cut before filming.[34] Casting Pris and Rachael was challenging, requiring several screen tests, with Morgan Paull playing the role of Deckard. Paull was cast as Deckard's fellow bounty hunter Holden based on his performances in the tests.[34] Brion James portrays Leon Kowalski, a combat replicant, and Joanna Cassidy portrays Zhora, an assassin replicant. Edward James Olmos portrays Gaff. Olmos used his diverse ethnic background, and personal research, to help create the fictional "Cityspeak" language his character uses in the film.[40] His initial address to Deckard at the noodle bar is partly in Hungarian and means, "Horse dick [bullshit]! No way. You are the Blade ... Blade Runner."[40] M. Emmet Walsh plays Captain Bryant, a hard-drinking, sleazy, and underhanded police veteran typical of the film noir genre. Joe Turkel portrays Dr. Eldon Tyrell, a corporate mogul who built an empire on genetically manipulated humanoid slaves. William Sanderson was cast as J. F. Sebastian, a quiet and lonely genius who provides a compassionate yet compliant portrait of humanity. J. F. sympathizes with the replicants, whom he sees as companions,[41] and shares their shorter lifespan due to his rapid aging disease;[42] Joe Pantoliano was considered for the role.[43] James Hong portrays Hannibal Chew, an elderly geneticist specializing in synthetic eyes, and Hy Pyke portrays the sleazy bar owner Taffey Lewis with ease and in a single take, something almost unheard-of with Scott whose drive for perfection resulted at times in double-digit takes.[44] Development The Bradbury Building in Los Angeles was a filming location. Interest in adapting Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? developed shortly after its 1968 publication. Director Martin Scorsese was interested in filming the novel, but never optioned it.[45] Producer Herb Jaffe optioned it in the early 1970s, but Dick was unimpressed with the screenplay written by Herb's son Robert: "Jaffe's screenplay was so terribly done ... Robert flew down to Santa Ana to speak with me about the project. And the first thing I said to him when he got off the plane was, 'Shall I beat you up here at the airport, or shall I beat you up back at my apartment?'"[46] The screenplay by Hampton Fancher was optioned in 1977.[47] Producer Michael Deeley became interested in Fancher's draft and convinced director Ridley Scott to film it. Scott had previously declined the project, but after leaving the slow production of Dune, wanted a faster-paced project to take his mind off his older brother's recent death.[48] He joined the project on February 21, 1980, and managed to push up the promised Filmways financing from US$13 million to $15 million. Fancher's script focused more on environmental issues and less on issues of humanity and faith, which had featured heavily in the novel, and Scott wanted changes. Fancher found a cinema treatment by William S. Burroughs for Alan E. Nourse's novel The Bladerunner (1974), titled Blade Runner (a movie).[nb 1] Scott liked the name, so Deeley obtained the rights to the titles. Eventually he hired David Peoples to rewrite the script and Fancher left the job over the issue on December 21, 1980, although he later returned to contribute additional rewrites.[49] Having invested over $2.5 million in pre-production,[50] as the date of commencement of principal photography neared, Filmways withdrew financial backing. In 10 days Deeley had secured $21.5 million in financing through a three-way deal between The Ladd Company (through Warner Bros.), the Hong Kong-based producer Sir Run Run Shaw, and Tandem Productions.[51] Philip K. Dick became concerned that no one had informed him about the film's production, which added to his distrust of Hollywood.[52] After Dick criticized an early version of Hampton Fancher's script in an article written for the Los Angeles Select TV Guide, the studio sent Dick the David Peoples' rewrite.[53] Although Dick died shortly before the film's release, he was pleased with the rewritten script, and with a 20-minute special effects test reel that was screened for him when he was invited to the studio. Despite his well known skepticism of Hollywood in principle, Dick enthused to Ridley Scott that the world created for the film looked exactly as he had imagined it.[37] He said, "I saw a segment of Douglas Trumbull's special effects for Blade Runner on the KNBC-TV news. I recognized it immediately. It was my own interior world. They caught it perfectly." He also approved of the film's script, saying, "After I finished reading the screenplay, I got the novel out and looked through it. The two reinforce each other, so that someone who started with the novel would enjoy the movie and someone who started with the movie would enjoy the novel."[54] The motion picture was dedicated to Dick.[55] Principal photography of Blade Runner began on March 9, 1981, and ended four months later.[56] In 1992, Ford revealed, "Blade Runner is not one of my favorite films. I tangled with Ridley."[57] Apart from friction with the director, Ford also disliked the voiceovers: "When we started shooting it had been tacitly agreed that the version of the film that we had agreed upon was the version without voiceover narration. It was a f**king [sic] nightmare. I thought that the film had worked without the narration. But now I was stuck re-creating that narration. And I was obliged to do the voiceovers for people that did not represent the director's interests."[35] "I went kicking and screaming to the studio to record it."[58] In 2006 Scott was asked "Who's the biggest pain in the arse you've ever worked with?", he replied: "It's got to be Harrison ... he'll forgive me because now I get on with him. Now he's become charming. But he knows a lot, that's the problem. When we worked together it was my first film up and I was the new kid on the block. But we made a good movie."[59] Ford said of Scott in 2000: "I admire his work. We had a bad patch there, and I'm over it."[60] In 2006 Ford reflected on the production of the film saying: "What I remember more than anything else when I see Blade Runner is not the 50 nights of shooting in the rain, but the voiceover ... I was still obliged to work for these clowns that came in writing one bad voiceover after another."[61] Ridley Scott confirmed in the summer 2007 issue of Total Film that Harrison Ford contributed to the Blade Runner Special Edition DVD, having already done his interviews. "Harrison's fully on board", said Scott.[62] The Bradbury Building in downtown Los Angeles served as a filming location, and a Warner Bros. backlot housed the LA 2019 streets. Other locations included Ennis-Brown House and the 2nd Street Tunnel. Test screenings resulted in several changes including adding a voice over, a happy ending, and the removal of a Holden hospital scene. The relationship between the filmmakers and the investors was difficult, which culminated in Deeley and Scott being fired but still working on the film.[63] Crew members created T-shirts during filming saying, "Yes Guv'nor, My Ass" that mocked Scott's unfavorable comparison of U.S. and British crews; Scott responded with a T-shirt of his own, "Xenophobia Sucks" making the incident known as the T-shirt war.[64][65] Design Police spinners flying above Los Angeles. Ridley Scott credits Edward Hopper's painting Nighthawks and the French science fiction comic magazine Métal Hurlant ("Heavy Metal"), to which the artist Moebius contributed, as stylistic mood sources.[66] He also drew on the landscape of "Hong Kong on a very bad day"[67] and the industrial landscape of his one-time home in northeast England.[68] The visual style of the movie is influenced by the work of Futurist Italian architect, Antonio Sant'Elia.[69] Scott hired Syd Mead as his concept artist who, like Scott, was influenced by Métal Hurlant.[70] Moebius was offered the opportunity to assist in the pre-production of Blade Runner, but he declined so that he could work on René Laloux's animated film Les Maîtres du temps – a decision that he later regretted.[71] Production designer Lawrence G. Paull and art director David Snyder realized Scott's and Mead's sketches. Douglas Trumbull and Richard Yuricich supervised the special effects for the film. Blade Runner has numerous deep similarities to Fritz Lang's Metropolis, including a built-up urban environment, in which the wealthy literally live above the workers, dominated by a huge building – the Stadtkrone Tower in Metropolis and the Tyrell Building in Blade Runner. Special effects supervisor David Dryer used stills from Metropolis when lining up Blade Runner‍ '​s miniature building shots.[72] "Spinner" is the generic term for the fictional flying cars used in the film. A Spinner can be driven as a ground-based vehicle, and take off vertically, hover, and cruise using jet propulsion much like vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. They are used extensively by the police to patrol and survey the population, and it is clear that despite restrictions wealthy people can acquire spinner licenses.[73] The vehicle was conceived and designed by Syd Mead who described the spinner as an "aerodyne"—a vehicle which directs air downward to create lift, though press kits for the film stated that the spinner was propelled by three engines: "conventional internal combustion, jet, and anti-gravity"[74] Mead's conceptual drawings were transformed into 25 working vehicles by automobile customizer Gene Winfield.[75] A Spinner is on permanent exhibit at the Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame in Seattle, Washington.[76] Voight-Kampff machine A very advanced form of lie detector that measures contractions of the iris muscle and the presence of invisible airborne particles emitted from the body. The bellows were designed for the latter function and give the machine the menacing air of a sinister insect. The VK is used primarily by Blade Runners to determine if a suspect is truly human by measuring the degree of his empathic response through carefully worded questions and statements. — Description from the original 1982 Blade Runner press kit. The Voight-Kampff machine (or device) is a fictional interrogation tool, originating in the book where it is spelled Voigt-Kampff. The Voight-Kampff is a polygraph-like machine used by Blade Runners to assist in the testing of an individual to determine if he or she is a replicant. It measures bodily functions such as respiration, blush response, heart rate, and eye movement in response to emotionally provocative questions.[77] In the film two replicants take the test, Leon and Rachael, and Deckard tells Tyrell that it usually takes 20 to 30 cross-referenced questions to distinguish a replicant; in contrast with the book, where it is stated it only takes "six or seven" questions to make a determination. In the film it takes more than one hundred questions to determine that Rachael is a replicant. Music Main article: Blade Runner (soundtrack) The Blade Runner soundtrack by Vangelis is a dark melodic combination of classic composition and futuristic synthesizers which mirrors the film-noir retro-future envisioned by Ridley Scott. Vangelis, fresh from his Academy Award winning score for Chariots of Fire,[78] composed and performed the music on his synthesizers.[79] He also made use of various chimes and the vocals of collaborator Demis Roussos.[80] Another memorable sound is the haunting tenor sax solo "Love Theme" by British saxophonist Dick Morrissey, who performed on many of Vangelis's albums. Ridley Scott also used "Memories of Green" from the Vangelis album See You Later, an orchestral version of which Scott would later use in his film Someone To Watch Over Me.[81] Along with Vangelis' compositions and ambient textures, the film's soundscape also features a track by the Japanese ensemble Nipponia – "Ogi No Mato" or "The Folding Fan as a Target" from the Nonesuch Records release Traditional Vocal and Instrumental Music – and a track by harpist Gail Laughton from "Harps of the Ancient Temples" on Laurel Records.[82] Despite being well received by fans and critically acclaimed and nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and Golden Globe as best original score, and the promise of a soundtrack album from Polydor Records in the end titles of the film, the release of the official soundtrack recording was delayed for over a decade. There are two official releases of the music from Blade Runner. In light of the lack of a release of an album, the New American Orchestra recorded an orchestral adaptation in 1982 which bore little resemblance to the original. Some of the film tracks would, in 1989, surface on the compilation Vangelis: Themes, but not until the 1992 release of the Director's Cut version would a substantial amount of the film's score see commercial release.[80] These delays and poor reproductions led to the production of many bootleg recordings over the years. A bootleg tape surfaced in 1982 at science fiction conventions and became popular given the delay of an official release of the original recordings, and in 1993 "Off World Music, Ltd" created a bootleg CD that would prove more comprehensive than Vangelis' official CD in 1994.[80] A set with three CDs of Blade Runner-related Vangelis music was released in 2007. Titled Blade Runner Trilogy, the first disc contains the same tracks as the 1994 official soundtrack release, the second features previously unreleased music from the movie, and the third disc is all newly composed music from Vangelis, inspired by, and in the spirit of the movie.[83] Special effects The movie's special effects are generally recognized to be among the best of all time,[84][85][86] using the available (non-digital) technology to the fullest. In addition to matte paintings and models, the techniques employed included multipass exposures. In some scenes, the set was lit, shot, the film rewound, and then rerecorded over with different lighting. In some cases this was done 16 times in all. The cameras were frequently motion controlled using computers.[85] Many effects utilised techniques which had been developed during the production of Close Encounters of the Third Kind.[87] Release Blade Runner was released in 1,290 theaters on June 25, 1982. That date was chosen by producer Alan Ladd, Jr. because his previous highest-grossing films (Star Wars and Alien) had a similar opening date (May 25) in 1977 and 1979, making the date his "lucky day".[88] Blade Runner grossed reasonably good ticket sales according to contemporary reports; earning $6.1 million during its first weekend in theaters.[89] The film was released in close proximity to The Thing, Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, Conan the Barbarian and, most significantly, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. These big-budget science fiction/fantasy films all released in 1982 undoubtedly glutted the market.[90] Critical reception Initial reactions among film critics were mixed. Some wrote that the plot took a back seat to the film's special effects, and did not fit the studio's marketing as an action/adventure movie. Others acclaimed its complexity and predicted it would stand the test of time.[91] Negative criticism in the United States cited its slow pace.[92] Sheila Benson from the Los Angeles Times called it "Blade Crawler," and Pat Berman in The State and Columbia Record described it as "science fiction pornography".[93] Pauline Kael praised Blade Runner as worthy of a place in film history for its distinctive sci-fi vision, yet criticized the films lack of development in "human terms".[94] Academics began writing analyses of the film almost as soon as it was released,[95] in particular its dystopic aspects, its questions regarding "authentic" humanity, its ecofeminist aspects,[96] in genre studies[97] and in recent years, popular culture. The film has been the subject of academic interest over decades.[98] Since its original release, the film has become a science fiction classic.[99] Roger Ebert praised the visuals of both the original and the Director's Cut versions and recommended it for that reason; however, he found the human story clichéd and a little thin.[36] Critic Chris Rodley and Janet Maslin theorized that Blade Runner changed cinematic and cultural discourse through its image repertoire, and subsequent influence on films.[100] Blade Runner holds an 89% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a website that rates films based on published reviews by critics, averaging a score of 8.5 out of 10 from 103 reviews.[101] The site's main consensus reads "Misunderstood when it first hit theaters, the influence of Ridley Scott's mysterious, neo-noir Blade Runner has deepened with time. A visually remarkable, achingly human sci-fi masterpiece."[101] Denis Villeneuve, who is to direct the Blade Runner sequel, cites the movie as a huge influence for him and many others.[99] Accolades Blade Runner has won and been nominated for the following awards:[102] Year Award Category Nominee Result 1982 British Society of Cinematographers Best Cinematography Award Jordan Cronenweth Nominated Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award Best Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth Won 1983 BAFTA Film Award Best Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth Won Best Costume Design Charles Knode & Michael Kaplan Won Best Production Design/Art Direction Lawrence G. Paull Won Best Film Editing Terry Rawlings Nominated Best Make Up Artist Marvin Westmore Nominated Best Score Vangelis Nominated Best Sound Peter Pennell, Bud Alper, Graham V. Hartstone, Gerry Humphreys Nominated Best Special Visual Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, David Dryer Nominated Hugo Award Best Dramatic Presentation Blade Runner Won London Critics Circle Film Awards Special Achievement Award Lawrence G. Paull, Douglas Trumbull, Syd Mead Won Golden Globes Best Original Score – Motion Picture Vangelis Nominated Academy Awards Best Art Direction – Set Decoration Lawrence G. Paull, David L. Snyder, Linda DeScenna Nominated Best Effects, Visual Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, David Dryer Nominated Saturn Award Best Science Fiction Film Blade Runner Nominated Best Director Ridley Scott Nominated Best Special Effects Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich Nominated Best Supporting Actor Rutger Hauer Nominated Fantasporto International Fantasy Film Award Best Film – Ridley Scott Nominated Versions Main article: Versions of Blade Runner Several different versions of Blade Runner have been shown. The original workprint version (1982, 113 minutes) was shown for audience test previews in Denver and Dallas in March 1982. Negative responses to the previews led to the modifications resulting in the U.S. theatrical version.[103][104] The workprint was shown as a director's cut without Scott's approval at the Los Angeles Fairfax Theater in May 1990, at an AMPAS showing in April 1991, and in September and October 1991 at the Los Angeles NuArt Theater and the San Francisco Castro Theater.[105] Positive responses pushed the studio to approve work on an official director's cut.[106] A San Diego Sneak Preview was shown only once, in May 1982, and was almost identical to the U.S. theatrical version but contained three extra scenes not shown in any other version, including the 2007 Final Cut.[107] Two versions were shown in the film's 1982 theatrical release: the U.S. theatrical version (116 minutes), known as the original version or Domestic Cut, released on Betamax and VHS in 1983 and Laserdisc in 1987; and the International Cut (117 minutes), also known as the "Criterion Edition" or "uncut version", which included more violent action scenes than the U.S. version. Although initially unavailable in the U.S., and distributed in Europe and Asia via theatrical and local Warner Home Video Laserdisc releases, it was later released on VHS and Criterion Collection Laserdisc in North America, and re-released in 1992 as a "10th Anniversary Edition".[108] Scott's Director's Cut (1991, 116 minutes) was made available on VHS and Laserdisc in 1993, and on DVD in 1997. Significant changes from the theatrical version include: the removal of Deckard's voice-over; re-insertion of the unicorn sequence; and removal of the studio-imposed happy ending. Scott provided extensive notes and consultation to Warner Bros. through film preservationist Michael Arick, who was put in charge of creating the Director's Cut.[12] Scott's The Final Cut (2007, 117 minutes) was released by Warner Bros. theatrically on October 5, 2007, and subsequently released on DVD, HD DVD, and Blu-ray Disc in December 2007.[13] This is the only version over which Scott had complete editorial control.[12] Year Award Category Nominee Result 1993 Fantasporto International Fantasy Film Award Best Film – Ridley Scott (Director's Cut) Nominated 1994 Saturn Award Best Genre Video Release Blade Runner (Director's Cut) Nominated 2008 Saturn Award Best DVD Special Edition Release Blade Runner (5 Disc Ultimate Collector's Edition) Won Legacy Cultural impact A police spinner flying beside huge advertising-laden skyscrapers. These special effects were benchmarks that have influenced many subsequent science-fiction films. A 2006 image of a Spinner (police variant) on display at Disney-MGM Studios. While not initially a success with North American audiences, the film was popular internationally and garnered a cult following.[109] The film's dark style and futuristic designs have served as a benchmark and its influence can be seen in many subsequent science fiction films, anime, video games, and television programs.[14] For example, Ronald D. Moore and David Eick, the producers of the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, have both cited Blade Runner as one of the major influences for the show.[110] Blade Runner continues to reflect modern trends and concerns, and an increasing number consider it one of the greatest science fiction films of all time.[111] It was voted the best science fiction film ever made in a poll of 60 eminent world scientists conducted in 2004.[112] Blade Runner is also cited as an important influence to both the style and story of the Ghost in the Shell film series, which itself has been highly influential to the future-noir genre.[113][114] The film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1993 and is frequently used in university courses.[115] In 2007 it was named the second most visually influential film of all time by the Visual Effects Society.[116] Blade Runner is one of the most musically sampled films of the 20th century.[117] The 2009 album, I, Human, by Singaporean band Deus Ex Machina makes numerous references to the genetic engineering and cloning themes from the film, and even features a track titled "Replicant".[118] Blade Runner has influenced adventure games such as the 2012 graphical text adventure Cypher,[119] Rise of the Dragon,[120][121] Snatcher,[121][122] Beneath a Steel Sky,[123] Flashback: The Quest for Identity,[121] Bubblegum Crisis (and its original anime films),[124][125] the role-playing game Shadowrun,[121] the first-person shooter Perfect Dark,[126] and the Syndicate series of video games.[127][128] The film is also cited as a major influence on Warren Spector,[129] designer of the computer-game Deus Ex, which displays evidence of the film's influence in both its visual rendering and plot. The look of the film, darkness, neon lights and opacity of vision, is easier to render than complicated backdrops, making it a popular choice for game designers.[130][131] Blade Runner has also been the subject of parody, such as the comics Blade Bummer by Crazy comics,[132] Bad Rubber by Steve Gallacci,[133] and the Red Dwarf 2009 three-part miniseries, "Back to Earth".[134][135] Among the folklore that has developed around the film over the years has been the belief that the film was a curse to the companies whose logos were displayed prominently as product placements in some scenes.[136] While they were market leaders at the time, Atari, Bell, Cuisinart and Pan Am experienced setbacks after the film's release. The Coca-Cola Company suffered losses during its failed introduction of New Coke in 1985, but soon afterwards regained its market share.[19] Media recognitions for Blade Runner include: Year Presenter Title Rank Notes 2001 The Village Voice 100 Best Films of the 20th Century 94 [137] 2002 Online Film Critics Society (OFCS) Top 100 Sci-fi Films of the Past 100 Years 2 [138] Sight & Sound Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 45 [139] 50 Klassiker, Film None [140] 2003 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die [141] Entertainment Weekly The Top 50 Cult Movies 9 [142] 2004 The Guardian, Scientists Top 10 Sci-fi Films of All Time 1 [143][144][145] 2005 Total Film‍ '​s Editors 100 Greatest Movies of All Time 47 [146] Time Magazine's Critics "All-TIME" 100 Best Movies None [147][148][149] 2008 New Scientist All-time favorite science fiction film (readers and staff) 1 [150][151] Empire The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time 20 [152] 2010 IGN Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time 1 [153] Total Film 100 Greatest Movies of All Time None [154] 2012 Sight & Sound Sight & Sound 2012 critics top 250 films 69 [155] Sight & Sound Sight & Sound 2012 directors top 100 films 67 [156] 2014 Empire The 301 Greatest Movies Of All Time 11 [157] American Film Institute recognition AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – Nominated[158]AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – #74AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains:[159] Roy Batty (Villain) – NominatedRick Deckard (Hero) – Nominated AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:[160] "I've seen things you people wouldn't believe. Attack ships on fire off the shoulder of Orion. I watched C-beams glitter in the dark near the Tannhauser gate. All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain. Time to die." – Nominated AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores – Nominated[161]AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #97AFI's 10 Top 10 – #6 Science Fiction Film In other media Before the film's principal photography began, Cinefantastique magazine commissioned Paul M. Sammon to write an article about Blade Runner‍ '​s production which became the book Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner.[162] The book chronicles Blade Runner‍  '​s evolution, focusing on film-set politics, especially the British director's experiences with his first American film crew; of which producer Alan Ladd, Jr. has said, "Harrison wouldn't speak to Ridley and Ridley wouldn't speak to Harrison. By the end of the shoot Ford was 'ready to kill Ridley', said one colleague. He really would have taken him on if he hadn't been talked out of it."[163] Future Noir has short cast biographies and quotations about their experiences, and photographs of the film's production and preliminary sketches. A second edition of Future Noir was published in 2007.[164] Philip K. Dick refused a $400,000 offer to write a Blade Runner novelization, saying: "[I was] told the cheapo novelization would have to appeal to the twelve-year-old audience" and "[it] would have probably been disastrous to me artistically." He added, "That insistence on my part of bringing out the original novel and not doing the novelization – they were just furious. They finally recognized that there was a legitimate reason for reissuing the novel, even though it cost them money. It was a victory not just of contractual obligations but of theoretical principles."[54] Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? was eventually reprinted as a tie-in, with the film poster as a cover and the original title in parentheses below the Blade Runner title.[165] Archie Goodwin scripted the comic book adaptation, A Marvel Super Special: Blade Runner, published in September 1982.[166] There are two video games based on the film, one from 1985 for Commodore 64, Sinclair ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC by CRL Group PLC based on the music by Vangelis (due to licensing issues), and another action adventure PC game from 1997 by Westwood Studios. The 1997 video game featured new characters and branching storylines based on the Blade Runner world. Eldon Tyrell, Gaff, Leon, Rachael, Chew, and J.F. Sebastian appear, and their voice files are recorded by the original actors.[167] The player assumes the role of McCoy, another replicant-hunter working at the same time as Deckard.[130][131][167] The PC game featured a non-linear plot, non-player characters that each ran in their own independent AI, and an unusual pseudo-3D engine (which eschewed polygonal solids in favor of voxel elements) that did not require the use of a 3D accelerator card to play the game.[168] The television film Total Recall 2070 was initially planned as a spin-off of the movie Total Recall, and would eventually be transformed into a hybrid of Total Recall and Blade Runner.[169] The Total Recall film was also based on a Philip K. Dick story, "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale"; many similarities between Total Recall 2070 and Blade Runner were noted, as well as apparent inspiration from Isaac Asimov's The Caves of Steel and the TV series Holmes & Yo-Yo.[170] The film has been the subject of several documentaries. On the Edge of Blade Runner (2000, 55 minutes) was directed by Andrew Abbott and hosted/written by Mark Kermode. Interviews with production staff, including Scott, give details of the creative process and the turmoil during preproduction. Insights into Philip K. Dick and the origins of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? are provided by Paul M. Sammon and Hampton Fancher.[63][63] Future Shocks (2003, 27 minutes) is a documentary by TVOntario.[171] It includes interviews with executive producer Bud Yorkin, Syd Mead, and the cast, and commentary by science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer and from film critics. Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner (2007, 213 minutes) is a documentary directed and produced by Charles de Lauzirika for The Final Cut version of the film. It was culled from over 80 interviews, including Ford, Young, and Scott.[172] The documentary consists of eight chapters, each covering a portion of the film-making – or in the case of the final chapter, the film's controversial legacy.[173] All Our Variant Futures: From Workprint to Final Cut (2007, 29 minutes), produced by Paul Prischman, appears on the Blade Runner Ultimate Collector's Edition and provides an overview of the film's multiple versions and their origins, as well as detailing the seven-year-long restoration, enhancement and remastering process behind The Final Cut.[13] Sequels Dick's friend, K. W. Jeter, wrote three authorized Blade Runner novels that continue Deckard's story, attempting to resolve the differences between the film and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?:[174] Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human (1995), Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night (1996), and Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon (2000). By 1999, Stuart Hazeldine had written a sequel to Blade Runner based on The Edge of Human, titled Blade Runner Down; the project was shelved due to rights issues.[175] Blade Runner co-author David Peoples wrote the 1998 action film Soldier, which was referred to by him as a "sidequel" or spiritual successor to the original film.[176] Scott considered developing a sequel, tentatively titled Metropolis.[175] At the 2007 Comic-Con, Scott again announced that he was considering a sequel to the film.[177] Eagle Eye co-writer Travis Wright worked with producer Bud Yorkin for several years on the project. His colleague John Glenn, who left the project by 2008, stated the script explores the nature of the off-world colonies as well as what happens to the Tyrell Corporation in the wake of its founder's death.[178] In June 2009, The New York Times reported that Scott and his brother Tony Scott were working on a Blade Runner prequel, set in 2019. The prequel, Purefold, was planned as a series of 5–10 minute shorts, aimed first at the web and then perhaps television. Due to rights issues, the proposed series was not to be linked too closely to the characters or events of the 1982 film.[179] On February 7, 2010, it was announced that production on Purefold had ceased, due to funding problems.[180] On March 4, 2011, io9 reported that Yorkin was developing a new Blade Runner film.[181] It was also reported that month that director Christopher Nolan was the desired choice to make the film.[182] It was announced on August 18, 2011, that Scott was to direct a new Blade Runner film, with filming to begin no earlier than 2013. Indications from producer Andrew Kosove were that Ford was unlikely to be involved in the project.[183][184] Scott later said that the film was "liable to be a sequel" but without the previous cast, and that he was close to finding a writer that "might be able to help [him] deliver".[185] On February 6, 2012, Kosove denied that any casting considerations had been made in response to buzz that Ford might reprise his role, saying, "It is absolutely, patently false that there has been any discussion about Harrison Ford being in Blade Runner. To be clear, what we are trying to do with Ridley now is go through the painstaking process of trying to break the back of the story ... The casting of the movie could not be further from our minds at this moment."[186] When Scott was asked about the possibility of a sequel in October 2012, he said, "It's not a rumor—it's happening. With Harrison Ford? I don't know yet. Is he too old? Well, he was a Nexus-6 so we don't know how long he can live. And that's all I'm going to say at this stage."[187] In November 2014, Variety magazine reported that Scott was no longer the director for the film and would only fulfill a producer's role. Scott also revealed that Ford's character will only appear in "the third act" of the sequel.[188] In February 2015, Alcon Entertainment confirmed that Scott will not be back to direct, and they were negotiating with Prisoners director Denis Villeneuve. Ford, however, will return, as will original writer Hampton Fancher, and the film is expected to enter production in mid-2016.[189] The sequel is set decades after the first film. Besides Ford, the film will also star Ryan Gosling in a currently undisclosed role. It will be directed by Villeneuve and executive produced by Scott. Oscar-nominated cinematographer Roger Deakins is also attached.[190][191] On November 16, 2015, Gosling told Collider that he will be starring in the sequel.[192] Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer. Following his commercial breakthrough with the science-fiction horror film Alien (1979), his better-known works are the neo-noir dystopian science fiction film Blade Runner (1982), crime drama Thelma & Louise (1991), historical drama and Best Picture Oscar winner Gladiator (2000), war film Black Hawk Down (2001), crime thriller Hannibal (2001), biographical film American Gangster (2007), and science fiction films Prometheus (2012) and The Martian (2015). Scott is known for his atmospheric, highly concentrated visual style.[1][2] Though his films range widely in setting and period, they frequently showcase memorable imagery of urban environments, whether 2nd century Rome (Gladiator), 12th century Jerusalem (Kingdom of Heaven), medieval England (Robin Hood), contemporary Mogadishu (Black Hawk Down), or the future cityscapes of Blade Runner. Scott has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing (for Thelma and Louise, Gladiator and Black Hawk Down).[1] In 1995 both Ridley and his brother Tony received the BAFTA Award for Outstanding British Contribution To Cinema.[3] In 2003, Scott was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace for his "services to the British film industry".[4] In 2015 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Royal College of Art in London.[5] Contents 1 Early life and career2 Early films 2.1 The Duellists2.2 Alien2.3 Blade Runner2.4 "1984" Apple Macintosh commercial2.5 Legend 3 Subsequent films 3.1 1987–19923.2 1993–19993.3 2000–20053.4 2006–present 4 On-going projects5 Personal life6 Approach and style7 DVD format and director's cut8 Filmography9 Awards and nominations10 Box office performance11 References12 External links Early life and career Scott was born 30 November 1937 in South Shields, Tyne and Wear in the North East of England,[6] the son of Elizabeth (née Williams) and Colonel Francis Percy Scott.[7][8] He was brought up in an army family, so for most of his early life, his father – an officer in the Royal Engineers – was absent. His elder brother, Frank, joined the Merchant Navy when he was still young and the pair had little contact. During this time the family moved around, living in (among other areas) Cumberland, Wales and Germany. He had a younger brother, Tony, who also became a film director. After the Second World War, the Scott family moved back to their native North East, eventually settling on Greens Beck Road, Hartburn, Stockton on Tees, Teesside (whose industrial landscape would later inspire similar scenes in Blade Runner).[9] He studied at Grangefield Grammar School and West Hartlepool College of Art from 1954 to 1958, obtaining a Diploma in Design. Scott went on to study at the Royal College of Art, contributing to college magazine ARK and helping to establish the college film department. For his final show, he made a black and white short film, Boy and Bicycle, starring both his younger brother and his father (the film was later released on the 'Extras' section of The Duellists DVD). In February 1963 Scott was named in title credits as "Designer" for the BBC television programme Tonight, about the severe winter of 1963. After graduation in 1963, he secured a job as a trainee set designer with the BBC, leading to work on the popular television police series Z-Cars and science fiction series Out of the Unknown. He was originally assigned to design the second Doctor Who serial, The Daleks, which would have entailed realising the famous alien creatures. However, shortly before Scott was due to start work, a schedule conflict meant he was replaced on the serial by Raymond Cusick.[10] In 1965, he began directing episodes of television series for the BBC, only one of which, an episode of Adam Adamant Lives!, is available commercially. (He directed two others, but these have been wiped.) In 1968, Ridley and Tony Scott founded Ridley Scott Associates (RSA), a film and commercial production company.[11] Working alongside Alan Parker, Hugh Hudson and cinematographer Hugh Johnson Ridley Scott made many commercials at RSA during the 1970s, including a notable 1974 Hovis advert, "Bike Round" (featuring the New World Symphony), set in the north of England but filmed in Shaftesbury, Dorset.[12] It was voted the UK's all-time favourite advert in a 2006 poll.[13] Five members of the Scott family are directors, and all have worked for RSA.[14] His brother Tony was a successful film director whose career spanned more than two decades; his sons Jake and Luke are both acclaimed directors of commercials, as is his daughter, Jordan Scott. Jake and Jordan both work from Los Angeles; Luke is based in London. In 1995, Shepperton Studios was purchased by a consortium headed by Ridley and Tony Scott, which extensively renovated the studios while also expanding and improving its grounds.[15] Early films The Duellists Main article: The Duellists The Duellists (1977) marked Ridley Scott's first feature as director. Shot in Europe, it was nominated for the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival, and won an award for best film. The Duellists had limited commercial impact internationally. Set during the Napoleonic Wars, it follows two French Hussar officers, D'Hubert and Feraud (Keith Carradine and Harvey Keitel) whose quarrel over an initially minor incident turns into a bitter extended feud spanning fifteen years, interwoven with the larger conflict that provides its backdrop. The film has been acclaimed for providing a historically authentic portrayal of Napoleonic uniforms and military conduct. Alien Main article: Alien (film) Scott had originally planned next to adapt a version of Tristan and Iseult, but after seeing Star Wars, he became convinced of the potential of large scale, effects-driven films. He accepted the job of directing Alien, the 1979 horror/science-fiction film that would win him international success. The female action hero Ellen Ripley (played by Sigourney Weaver), who appeared in the first four Alien films, would become a cinematic icon. Scott was involved in the 2003 restoration and re-release of the original film. In promotional interviews at the time, Scott indicated he had been in discussions to make a fifth film in the Alien franchise. However, in a later (2006) interview, the director remarked that he had been unhappy about Alien: The Director's Cut, feeling that the original was "pretty flawless" and that the additions were merely a marketing tool.[16] Scott would later return to an Alien-related project when he directed Prometheus three decades after the original film's release. (See 2006 – present section, for more on Prometheus.) Blade Runner Main article: Blade Runner After a year working on the film adaptation of Dune, and following the sudden death of his brother Frank, Scott signed to direct the film version of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. Starring Harrison Ford, Blade Runner was a commercial disappointment in cinemas in 1982, but is now regarded as a classic. In 1991 Scott's notes were used by Warner Brothers to create a rushed director's cut which removed the main character's voiceover and made a number of other small changes, including to the ending. Later Scott personally supervised a digital restoration of Blade Runner and approved what was called The Final Cut. This version was released in Los Angeles, New York City and Toronto cinemas on 5 October 2007, and as an elaborate DVD release in December 2007.[17] Today, Blade Runner is ranked by many critics as one of the most important and influential science fiction films yet made,[18] partly thanks to its much imitated portraits of a future cityscape. It is often discussed along with William Gibson's novel Neuromancer as initiating the cyberpunk genre. Scott has described Blade Runner as his "most complete and personal film".[19] "1984" Apple Macintosh commercial Main article: 1984 (advertisement) In 1984 Scott directed a big-budget ($900,000) television commercial to launch the Apple Macintosh computer.[20] Scott filmed the 1984 advertisement in England for about $370,000;[21] which was given a showcase airing in the US on 22 January 1984, during Super Bowl XVIII, alongside screenings in cinemas.[22] Some consider this advertisement a "watershed event" in advertising[23] and a "masterpiece".[24] The advertisement used its heroine (portrayed by English athlete Anya Major) to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by her white tank top adorned with a picture of Apple's Macintosh computer) as a means of saving humanity from "conformity" (Big Brother), an allusion to IBM, at that time the dominant force in computing.[25] Legend Main article: Legend (1985 film) In 1985 Scott directed Legend, a fantasy film produced by Arnon Milchan. Scott decided to create a "once upon a time" tale set in a world of princesses, unicorns and goblins, filming almost entirely inside the studio. Scott cast Tom Cruise as the film's hero, Jack, Mia Sara as Princess Lili and Tim Curry as the Satan-horned Lord of Darkness.[26] In the final stages of filming, the forest set was destroyed by fire; Jerry Goldsmith's original score was used for European release, but replaced in North America with a score by Tangerine Dream. Rob Bottin provided the film's Academy Award-nominated make-up effects, most notably Curry's red-coloured Satan figure. Though a major commercial failure on release, the film has gone on to become a cult classic. The 2002 Director's Cut restored Goldsmith's original score.[27] Subsequent films 1987–1992 Scott made Someone to Watch Over Me, a romantic thriller starring Tom Berenger and Mimi Rogers in 1987, and Black Rain (1989), a police drama starring Michael Douglas and Andy García, shot partially in Japan. Both achieved mild success at the box office. Black Rain was the first of Scott's six collaborations with the composer Hans Zimmer.[28][29] Road film Thelma & Louise (1991) starring Geena Davis as Thelma, and Susan Sarandon as Louise, proved to be one of Scott's biggest critical successes, helping revive the director's reputation and receiving his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director. His next project, independently-funded historical epic 1492: Conquest of Paradise, was a box office failure. The film recounts the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus (French star Gérard Depardieu). Scott did not release another film for four years. 1993–1999 In 1995 Ridley and his brother Tony formed a production company, Scott Free Productions, in Los Angeles. All Ridley's subsequent feature films, starting with White Squall and G.I. Jane have been produced under the Scott Free banner. In 1995 the two brothers purchased a controlling interest in the British film studio, Shepperton Studios, which in 2001 merged with Pinewood Studios to become The Pinewood Studios Group which is headquartered in Buckinghamshire, England.[30] Scott and his brother have produced CBS series Numb3rs (2005–10), a crime drama about a genius mathematician who helps the FBI solve crimes, and The Good Wife (2009–), a legal drama about an attorney balancing her job with her husband, a former state attorney trying to rebuild his political career after a major scandal. The two Scotts also produced a 2010 film adaptation of 1980s television show The A-Team, directed by Joe Carnahan. 2000–2005 Scott's film Gladiator (2000) proved to be one of his biggest critical and commercial successes to date. It won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor, for the film's star Russell Crowe. Some have credited Gladiator with reviving the nearly defunct "sword and sandal" historical genre. Scott then turned to Hannibal (2001), a sequel to Jonathan Demme's The Silence of the Lambs—the film was commercially successful despite receiving mixed reviews—and then to Black Hawk Down, based on a group of stranded American soldiers fighting for their lives in Somalia. Scott received two more nominations for the Academy Award for Best Director for Gladiator and Black Hawk Down. In 2003 Scott directed a smaller scale project, Matchstick Men, adapted from the novel by Eric Garcia and starring Nicolas Cage, Sam Rockwell and Alison Lohman. It received mostly positive reviews, but performed moderately at the box office. In 2005 he made the modestly successful Kingdom of Heaven, a film about the Crusades. The Moroccan government sent the Moroccan cavalry as extras for some battle scenes.[31] Unhappy with the theatrical version of the film (which he blamed on paying too much attention to the opinions of preview audiences), Scott supervised a director's cut of Kingdom of Heaven, which was released on DVD in 2006.[32] Asked if he was against previewing in general in 2006, Scott stated: "It depends who's in the driving seat. If you've got a lunatic doing my job, then you need to preview. But a good director should be experienced enough to judge what he thinks is the correct version to go out into the cinema."[33] 2006–present Scott teamed up again with Gladiator star Russell Crowe, for A Good Year, based on the best-selling book by Peter Mayle about an investment banker who finds a new life in Provence. The film was released on 10 November 2006. A few days later Rupert Murdoch, chairman of studio 20th Century Fox (who backed the film) dismissed A Good Year as "a flop" at a shareholders' meeting.[34] Scott's next film was American Gangster, based on the story of real-life drug kingpin Frank Lucas. He was the third director to join the project after Antoine Fuqua and Terry George. Denzel Washington and Benicio del Toro had initially been cast, both actors having been paid salaries of $20 m and $15 m respectively without the film having gone into production. Scott took over the project in early 2006. He had Steven Zaillian rewrite his script to focus on the dynamic between Frank Lucas and Richie Roberts. Washington signed back on to the project as Lucas, with Russell Crowe co-starring. The film finally premiered in November 2007 to positive reviews and good box office. In late 2008 Scott released espionage thriller Body of Lies starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Crowe once again, which opened to luke-warm ticket-sales and mixed reviews. Scott directed a revisionist adaptation of Robin Hood, which starred Russell Crowe as Robin Hood and Cate Blanchett as Maid Marian. It was released in the United States in May 2010 to mixed reviews, but a respectable box-office. On 31 July 2009, news surfaced of a two-part prequel to Alien[35] with Scott attached to direct.[36] The project, ultimately reduced to a single film called Prometheus, which Scott described as sharing "strands of Alien's DNA" while not being a direct prequel, was released in June 2012. The film received mostly positive reviews and grossed $403 million at the box office. A sequel is in development for 2016. In 2009, the TV Series The Good Wife premiered with Ridley Scott and his brother Tony Scott credited as executive producers. On 6 July 2010, YouTube announced the launch of Life in a Day, an experimental documentary executive produced by Scott. Released at the Sundance Film Festival on 27 January 2011, it incorporates footage shot on 24 July 2010 submitted by YouTube users from around the world.[37] In 2012, Scott produced the commercial for Lady Gaga's fragrance, "Fame." It was touted as the first ever black Eau de Parfum, in the informal credits attached to the trailer for this advertisement. On 24 June 2013, Scott's series Crimes of the Century debuted on CNN.[38] In November 2012 it was announced that Scott would produce the documentary, Springsteen & I directed by Baillie Walsh and inspired by Life in a Day, which Scott also produced. The film featured fan footage from throughout the world on what musician Bruce Springsteen meant to them and how he impacted their lives. The film was released for one day only in 50 countries and on over 2000 film screens on 22 July 2013. In October, 2013, it had television broadcast and release on DVD and Blu-ray. Scott directed The Counselor (2013), with a screenplay by author Cormac McCarthy.[39][40] On 25 October 2013, Indiewire reported that "Before McCarthy sold his first spec script for Scott's (Counselor) film, the director was heavily involved in developing an adaptation of the author's 1985 novel Blood Meridian with screenwriter Bill Monahan (The Departed). But as Scott said in a Time Out interview, '[Studios] didn't want to make it. The book is so uncompromising, which is what's great about it.' Described as an 'anti-western'..."[41] Scott directed the biblically-inspired epic film Exodus: Gods and Kings, released in December 2014. In March 2013, Twentieth Century Fox optioned the film rights for the novel The Martian, and hired screenwriter Drew Goddard to adapt and direct the film.[42][43] In May 2014, it was reported that Scott was in negotiations to direct the adaptation, set to star Matt Damon as Mark Watney.[44] The film was originally scheduled for release on 25 November 2015, but Fox later switched its release date with that of Victor Frankenstein, and thus The Martian was released on 2 October 2015.[45][46] On-going projects In October 2008, Scott confirmed that after a 25-year wait for the rights to become available, he was to make an adaptation of the book The Forever War by Joe Haldeman. He was looking for a script writer.[47] The following March, he confirmed that the film would be in 3D, citing James Cameron's Avatar as an inspiration for this. "I'm filming a book by Joe Haldeman called Forever War. I've got a good writer doing it. I've seen some of James Cameron's work and I've got to go 3D. It's going to be phenomenal."[48][49] Another science fiction project associated with Scott is an adaptation of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. In August 2011, information leaked about production of a sequel to Blade Runner by Alcon Entertainment, with Alcon partners Broderick Johnson and Andrew Kosove.[50] Scott informed the Variety publication in November 2014 that he was no longer the director for the film and would only fulfill a producer's role. Scott also revealed that filming would begin sometime within 2015, and that Harrison Ford has signed on to reprise his role from the original film but his character should only appear in "the third act" of the sequel.[51] In late 2013, it was announced that Scott will begin casting for the film adaptation of Hugh Howey's Wool in early 2014.[52] A sequel to Prometheus titled Alien: Covenant is in development, and is scheduled to begin filming in early 2016, for release in 2017.[53] Personal life Ridley Scott was married to Felicity Heywood from 1964 to 1975. The couple had two sons, Jake and Luke, both of whom work as directors on Scott's production company, Ridley Scott Associates. Scott later married advertising executive Sandy Watson in 1979, with whom he had a daughter, Jordan Scott, and divorced in 1989.[54][55] His current partner is the actress Giannina Facio, whom he has cast in all his films since White Squall except American Gangster."[56] He divides his time between homes in London, France and Los Angeles. Scott received a knighthood in honour of his substantial contribution to the British film industry, from the Queen at Buckingham Palace on 8 July 2003.[4] Scott admitted feeling "stunned and truly humbled" after the ceremony, saying, "As a boy growing up in South Shields, I could never have imagined that I would receive such a special recognition. I am truly humbled to receive this treasured award and believe it also further recognises the excellence of the British film industry."[57] His eldest brother Frank died, aged 45, of skin cancer in 1980.[58] His younger brother Tony, who was also his business partner in their company Scott Free, died on 19 August 2012 after jumping from the Vincent Thomas Bridge which spans Los Angeles Harbor. Before Tony's death, he and Ridley collaborated on a miniseries based on Robin Cook's novel, Coma for A&E. The two-part miniseries premiered on A&E on 3 September 2012, to mixed reviews.[59] In 2013 Ridley stated that he is an atheist.[60] Ridley has dedicated several of his films in memory of his family: Blade Runner to his brother Frank, Black Hawk Down to his mother, and The Counselor and Exodus: Gods and Kings to his brother Tony. Approach and style Russell Crowe commented, "I like being on Ridley's set because actors can perform [...] and the focus is on the performers."[61] Paul M. Sammon, in his book Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner, commented in an interview with Brmovie.com that Scott's relationship with his actors has improved considerably over the years.[62] More recently during the filming of Scott's 2012 film, Prometheus, Charlize Theron praised the director's willingness to listen to suggestions from the cast for improvements in the way their characters are portrayed on script. Theron worked alongside the writers and Scott to give more depth to her character during filming.[63] His striking visual style, incorporating a detailed approach to production design and innovative, atmospheric lighting, has been influential on a subsequent generation of filmmakers – many of whom have imitated his style.[citation needed] Scott commonly uses slow pacing until the action sequences. Examples include Alien and Blade Runner; the LA Times critic Sheila Benson, for example, would call the latter "Blade Crawler" "because it's so damn slow". Another technique he employs is use of sound or music to build tension, as heard in Alien, with hissing steam, beeping computers and the noise of the machinery in the space ship. Scott claims to have an Eidetic Memory, which he says aids him in visualising and storyboarding the scenes in his films.[64] Scott has developed a method for filming intricate shots as swiftly as possible: "I like working, always, with a minimum of three cameras. [...] So those 50 set-ups [a day] might only be 25 set-ups except I'm covering in the set-up. So you're finished. I mean, if you take a little bit more time to prep on three cameras, or if it's a big stunt, eleven cameras, and – whilst it may take 45 minutes to set up – then when you're ready you say 'Action!', and you do three takes, two takes and is everybody happy? You say, 'Yeah, that's it.' So you move on."[61] Although Scott is often known for his painterly directorial style, other techniques and elements include: Artificial intelligence is a unifying theme throughout Scott's career as a director, particularly in Blade Runner, Alien, and Prometheus.[65] The recent book The Culture and Philosophy of Ridley Scott identifies Alan Turing and John Searle, a professor at the University of California, as presenting relevant models of testing artificial intelligence known as the Turing test and the Chinese Room Thought Experiment, respectively, in the chapter titled "What's Wrong with Building Replicants," which has been a recurring theme for many of Scott's films.[66] The chapter titled "Artificial Intelligence in Blade Runner, Alien, and Prometheus," concludes by citing the writings of John Stuart Mill in the context of Scott's Nexus-6 Replicants in Blade Runner (Rutger Hauer), the android Ash (Ian Holm) in Alien, and the android David (Michael Fassbender) in Prometheus, where Mill is applied to assert that measures and tests of intelligence must also assess actions and moral behaviour in androids to effectively address the themes which Scott explores in these films.[67]Scott seems to use extreme levels of lighting in his films. Blade Runner is, for the most part, dark and dingy, whereas Thelma & Louise, for the most part, is bright, sunny and happy.Strong female characters.[68][69]Some of his films feature strong conflicts between father and son that usually end with the latter killing the former (Blade Runner, Gladiator) or witnessing the event (Kingdom of Heaven, Robin Hood). The Lord of Darkness in Legend also mentions his "father" on a few occasions. As part of the conflict between father and son there are some repetitive scenes: in Gladiator, the son hugs the father seemingly as an expression of love but this embrace turns into the suffocation and death of the father. There is a similar sequence in Blade Runner. In Prometheus, the character David says "Doesn't everyone want their parents dead?"Scott uses cityscapes as an emphasis to his storytelling (e.g., a futuristic Los Angeles in Blade Runner, Osaka in Black Rain, Jerusalem in Kingdom of Heaven).In Gladiator, Blade Runner and Kingdom of Heaven, a son gets to know his father when he is grown up. Other common elements are that the mother is not seen, and that the son or father is seen performing his last actions. For example, Roy Batty is dying when he saves Deckard, Maximus dies after killing Commodus and Godfrey of Ibelin kills some enemies after he has been mortally wounded by an arrow. In addition, the hero is saved from death before attaining his greatest deeds: Deckard is saved by Rachel, Maximus is saved by a slave and Balian is saved by a Muslim enemy. Similar situations can be seen in Tony Scott's Man on Fire.Military and officer classes as characters reflecting his father's career, such as in G.I. Jane, Gladiator, Black Hawk Down, Kingdom of Heaven, Robin Hood and Prometheus.Storyboarding his films extensively. These illustrations, when made by himself, have been referred to as "Ridleygrams" in DVD releases.Scott was once known for requesting a great many takes. This was evident on Blade Runner: the crew nicknamed the movie "Blood Runner" because of this.He often makes use of classical music (the Hovis advertisements, Someone to Watch Over Me).Extensive use of smoke and other atmospheres (in Alien, Blade Runner and Black Rain), plus fans and fan-like objects (Blade Runner, Black Rain and the large Boeing jet engines in the "1984" TV advertisement). Fans are also used in Hannibal, for symbolic purposes.Consistency in his choice of composers, using Jerry Goldsmith (Alien and Legend), Vangelis (Blade Runner and 1492: Conquest of Paradise), Hans Zimmer (Black Rain, Thelma & Louise, Gladiator, Hannibal, Black Hawk Down and Matchstick Men) or Marc Streitenfeld (A Good Year, American Gangster, Body of Lies, Robin Hood and Prometheus). Scott has also twice used songs by Sting during the film credits ("Valparaiso" for White Squall and "Someone to Watch Over Me" for the movie of the same title).In his recent films, he often shoots at fast shutter speeds for a "staccato" look during action scenes (Gladiator, Black Hawk Down, Kingdom of Heaven, Robin Hood). DVD format and director's cut Scott is known for his enthusiasm for the DVD format, providing audio commentaries and interviews for all his films where possible. In the July 2006 issue of Total Film magazine, he stated: "After all the work we go through, to have it run in the cinema and then disappear forever is a great pity. To give the film added life is really cool for both those who missed it and those who really loved it."[33] Running alongside his enthusiasm for DVD, Scott is sometimes considered the "father" of the director's cut. The positive reaction to the Blade Runner Director's Cut encouraged Scott to re-cut several movies that were a disappointment at the time of their release (including Legend and Kingdom of Heaven). Today the practice of alternative cuts is more commonplace, though often as a way to make a film stand out in the DVD marketplace by adding new material. Filmography Main article: Ridley Scott filmography Awards and nominations Scott was appointed Knight Bachelor in the 2003 New Year Honours.[4][70] The Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted him in 2007.[71] In 2011 he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[72] He has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Directing—Thelma & Louise, Gladiator and Black Hawk Down—as well as a Golden Globe, BAFTA and 2 Emmy Awards. On 3 July 2015 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Royal College of Art in a ceremony at the Royal Albert Hall in London at which he described how he still keeps on his office wall his school report placing him 31st out of 31 in his class, and how his teacher encouraged him to pursue what became his passion at art school.[5][73] Year Award Category Title Result 1977 Cannes Best Debut Film Award The Duellists Won Palme d'Or Nominated 1979 Saturn Awards Best Director Alien Won Best Science Fiction film Won 1983 Best Director Blade Runner Nominated 2001 Gladiator Nominated 2004 The George Pal Memorial Award Won 1991 DGA Best Director – Motion Picture Thelma & Louise Nominated 2001 Gladiator Nominated 2002 Black Hawk Down Nominated 1991 Academy Awards Best Director Thelma & Louise Nominated 2000 Gladiator Nominated 2001 Black Hawk Down Nominated 2000 Golden Globe Best Director – Motion Picture Gladiator Nominated 2007 American Gangster Nominated 1991 BAFTA Best Director Thelma & Louise Nominated 2000 Gladiator Nominated 2001 Satellite Award Best Director Gladiator Nominated 2002 American Film Institute Director of the Year Black Hawk Down Nominated Movie of the Year Nominated 2000 Emmy Award Outstanding Made for Television Movie RKO 281 Nominated 2002 The Gathering Storm Won 2008 Outstanding Miniseries The Andromeda Strain Nominated 2009 Outstanding Made for Television Movie Into the Storm Nominated 2010 Outstanding Drama Series The Good Wife Nominated 2011 Nominated Outstanding Miniseries or Movie The Pillars of the Earth Nominated Outstanding Nonfiction Special Gettysburg Won 2014 Outstanding Television Movie Killing Kennedy Nominated 2015 Killing Jesus Nominated 2014 Visual Effects Society Lifetime Achievement Award Won 2015 National Board of Review Best Director The Martian Won Box office performance Date Movie Studio United States gross[74] Worldwide gross[74] Theatres[74] Opening weekend[74] Opening theatres Budget 1977 The Duellists Par. $900,000 1979 Alien Fox $80,931,801 $104,931,801 757 $3,527,881 91 $11,000,000 1982 Blade Runner WB $32,768,670 $33,139,618 1,325 $6,150,002 1,295 $28,000,000 1985 Legend Uni. $15,502,112 $15,502,112 1,187 $4,261,154 1,187 $30,000,000 1987 Someone to Watch Over Me Col. $10,278,549 $10,278,549 894 $2,908,796 892 $17,000,000 1989 Black Rain Par. $46,212,055 $134,212,055 1,760 $9,677,102 1,610 $30,000,000 1991 Thelma & Louise MGM $45,360,915 $45,360,915 1,180 $6,101,297 1,179 $16,500,000 1992 1492: Conquest of Paradise Par. $7,191,399 $59,000,000[75] 1,008 $3,002,680 1,008 $47,000,000 1996 White Squall BV $10,292,300 $10,292,300 1,524 $3,908,514 1,524 $38,000,000 1997 G.I. Jane BV $48,169,156 $97,169,156 2,043 $11,094,241 1,945 $50,000,000 2000 Gladiator DW $187,705,427 $457,640,427 3,188 $34,819,017 2,938 $103,000,000 2001 Hannibal MGM $165,092,268 $351,692,268 3,292 $58,003,121 3,230 $87,000,000 2001 Black Hawk Down Sony $108,638,745 $172,989,651 3,143 $179,823 4 $92,000,000 2003 Matchstick Men WB $36,906,460 $65,565,672 2,711 $13,087,307 2,711 $65,000,000 2005 Kingdom of Heaven Fox $47,398,413 $211,652,051 3,219 $19,635,996 3,216 $130,000,000 2006 A Good Year Fox $7,459,300 $42,056,466 2,067 $3,721,526 2,066 $35,000,000 2007 American Gangster Uni. $130,164,645 $265,697,825 3,110 $43,565,115 3,054 $100,000,000 2008 Body of Lies WB $39,394,666 $115,321,950 2,714 $12,884,416 2,710 $70,000,000 2010 Robin Hood Uni. $105,269,730 $321,669,730 3,505 $36,063,385 3,503 $200,000,000 2012 Prometheus Fox $126,477,084 $403,354,469 3,442 $51,050,101 3,396 $130,000,000 2013 The Counselor Fox $16,973,715 $70,237,649 3,044 $7,842,930 3,044 $25,000,000 2014 Exodus: Gods and Kings Fox $65,014,513 $268,031,828 3,503 $24,115,934 3,503 $140,000,000 2015 The Martian Fox $218,536,914 $545,015,792 3,854 $54,308,575 3,831 $108,000,000 Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor and film producer. He gained worldwide fame for his starring roles as Han Solo in the original Star Wars epic space opera trilogy and the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in the 1982 neo-noir dystopian science fiction film Blade Runner, John Book in the 1985 thriller Witness, and Jack Ryan in the 1992 action-suspense film Patriot Games and the 1994 spy action thriller film Clear and Present Danger. His career has spanned six decades and includes roles in several Hollywood blockbusters; including the epic war film Apocalypse Now (1979), the legal drama Presumed Innocent (1990), the action film The Fugitive (1993), the political action thriller Air Force One (1997) and the psychological thriller What Lies Beneath (2000). At one point, four of the top six box-office hits of all time included one of his roles.[1] Seven of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry: American Graffiti (1973), The Conversation (1974), Star Wars (1977), Apocalypse Now, The Empire Strikes Back (1980), Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) and Blade Runner. In 1997, Ford was ranked No. 1 in Empire‍ '​s "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. As of July 2008, the US domestic box office grosses of Ford's films total over US$3.5 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $6 billion, making Ford the fourth-highest-grossing U.S. domestic box-office star.[2] Ford is married to actress Calista Flockhart, who is known for playing the title role in the comedy-drama series Ally McBeal. Contents 1 Early life2 Early career3 Milestone franchises 3.1 Star Wars3.2 Indiana Jones 4 Other film work 4.1 1990s - 2010s 5 Personal life 5.1 Marriages and family5.2 Back injury5.3 Ankle injury5.4 Aviation 6 Activism 6.1 Environmental causes6.2 Political views6.3 Archaeology6.4 Community work 7 Selected filmography8 Awards and honors9 References10 External links Early life Ford was born at the Swedish Covenant Hospital in Chicago,[3] to Christopher Ford (born John William Ford; 1906-1999), an advertising executive and former actor, and Dorothy (née Nidelman; 1917-2004), a former radio actress.[4][5] A younger brother, Terence, was born in 1945. Ford's paternal grandparents, John Fitzgerald Ford and Florence Veronica Niehaus, were of Irish Catholic and German descent, respectively.[4] Ford's maternal grandparents, Harry Nidelman and Anna Lifschutz, were Jewish immigrants from Minsk, Belarus (at that time a part of the Russian Empire).[4] When asked in which religion he and his brother were raised, Ford has jokingly responded, "Democrat,"[6] "to be liberals of every stripe".[7] In a television interview shown in August 2000, when asked about what influence his Irish Catholic and Russian Jewish ancestry may have had on his life as a person and as an artist, Ford humorously stated "As a man I've always felt Irish, as an actor I've always felt Jewish."[8][9] Ford was active in the Boy Scouts of America, and achieved its second-highest rank, Life Scout. He worked at Napowan Adventure Base Scout camp as a counselor for the Reptile Study merit badge. Because of this, he and director Steven Spielberg later decided to depict the young Indiana Jones as a Life Scout in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. They also jokingly reversed Ford's knowledge of reptiles into Jones' fear of snakes. In 1960, Ford graduated from Maine East High School in Park Ridge, Illinois. His was the first student voice broadcast on his high school's new radio station, WMTH,[8] and he was its first sportscaster during his senior year (1959–60). He attended Ripon College in Wisconsin,[8] where he was a member of the Sigma Nu fraternity. He took a drama class in the final quarter of his senior year to get over his shyness.[10] Ford, a self-described "late bloomer,"[11] became fascinated with acting. Early career In 1964, after a season of summer stock with the Belfry Players in Wisconsin,[12] Ford traveled to Los Angeles, California to apply for a job in radio voice overs. He did not get it, but stayed in California and eventually signed a $150 a week contract with Columbia Pictures' New Talent program, playing bit roles in films. His first known part was an uncredited role as a bellhop in Dead Heat on a Merry-Go-Round (1966). There is little record of his non-speaking roles (or "extra" work) in film. Ford was at the bottom of the hiring list, having offended producer Jerry Tokovsky after he played a bellboy in the feature. He was told by Tokovsky that when actor Tony Curtis delivered a bag of groceries, he did it like a movie star; Ford felt his job was to act like a bellboy.[13] Ford managed to secure other roles in movies, such as A Time for Killing (The Long Ride Home), starring Glenn Ford, George Hamilton and Inger Stevens. His speaking roles continued next with Luv (1967), though he was still uncredited. He was finally credited as "Harrison J. Ford" in the 1967 Western film, A Time for Killing, but the "J" did not stand for anything, since he has no middle name. It was added to avoid confusion with a silent film actor named Harrison Ford, who appeared in more than 80 films between 1915 and 1932, and died in 1957. Ford later said that he was unaware of the existence of the earlier Harrison Ford until he came upon a star with his own name on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Ford soon dropped the "J" and worked for Universal Studios, playing minor roles in many television series throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s, including Gunsmoke, Ironside, The Virginian, The F.B.I., Love, American Style, and Kung Fu. He appeared in the western Journey to Shiloh (1968) and had an uncredited, non-speaking role in Michelangelo Antonioni's 1970 film Zabriskie Point, as an arrested student protester. Not happy with the roles being offered to him, Ford became a self-taught professional carpenter[8] to support his then-wife and two small sons. While working as a carpenter, he became a stagehand for the popular rock band The Doors. He also built a sun deck for actress Sally Kellerman and a recording studio for Brazilian band leader Sérgio Mendes. Casting director and fledgling producer Fred Roos championed the young Ford, and secured him an audition with George Lucas for the role of Bob Falfa, which Ford went on to play in American Graffiti (1973).[8] Ford's relationship with Lucas would profoundly affect his career later on. After director Francis Ford Coppola's film The Godfather was a success, he hired Ford to expand his office and gave him small roles in his next two films, The Conversation (1974) and Apocalypse Now (1979); in the latter film he played an army officer named "G. Lucas". Milestone franchises Star Wars Harrison Ford's previous work in American Graffiti eventually landed him his first starring film role, when he was hired by Lucas to read lines for actors auditioning for parts in his then-upcoming film Star Wars (1977).[8] Lucas was eventually won over by Ford's performance during these line reads and cast him as Han Solo.[14] Star Wars became one of the most successful movies of all time worldwide and established Ford as a superstar. He went on to star in the similarly successful Star Wars sequels, The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983), as well as the Star Wars Holiday Special (1978). Ford wanted Lucas to kill off Han Solo at the end of Return of the Jedi, saying, "That would have given the whole film a bottom," but Lucas refused.[15] However Ford recently admitted in an interview that "he was wrong" to want his character killed off.[16] Ford will reprise the role of Solo for the upcoming Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015).[17] During filming on June 11, 2014, Ford suffered what is said to be a fractured ankle when a hydraulic door fell on him. He was rushed to the hospital for treatment.[18] Ford's son Ben released details on his father's injury, saying that his ankle will likely need a plate and screws and that filming could be altered slightly with the crew needing to shoot Ford from the waist up for a short time until he recovers.[19] Ford made his return to filming in mid-August after a two-month layoff as he recovered from his injury.[20][21] Indiana Jones Ford with Chandran Rutnam on the set of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom which was shot in Kandy, Sri Lanka in 1983 Ford's status as a leading actor was solidified when he starred as globe-trotting archeologist Indiana Jones in the film Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), a collaboration between George Lucas and Steven Spielberg.[8] Though Spielberg was interested in casting Ford from the start, Lucas was not, due to having already worked with the actor in American Graffiti and Star Wars, but he eventually relented after Tom Selleck was unable to accept.[8][22] Ford went on to reprise the role of Jones for the prequel Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) and the sequel Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989).[8] He returned to the role yet again for a 1993 episode of the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, and even later for the fourth film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008). Other film work Ford has been in other films, including Heroes (1977), Force 10 from Navarone (1978), and Hanover Street (1979). Ford also co-starred alongside Gene Wilder in the buddy-Western The Frisco Kid (1979), playing a bank robber with a heart of gold. He then starred as Rick Deckard in Ridley Scott's cult sci-fi classic Blade Runner (1982), and in a number of dramatic-action films: Peter Weir's Witness (1985) and The Mosquito Coast (1986), and Roman Polanski's Frantic (1988).[8] The 1990s brought Ford the role of Jack Ryan in Tom Clancy's Patriot Games (1992) and Clear and Present Danger (1994), as well as leading roles in Alan Pakula's Presumed Innocent (1990) and The Devil's Own (1997), Andrew Davis' The Fugitive (1993), Sydney Pollack's remake of Sabrina (1995), and Wolfgang Petersen's Air Force One (1997). Ford also played straight dramatic roles, including an adulterous husband in both Presumed Innocent (1990) and What Lies Beneath (2000), and a recovering amnesiac in Mike Nichols' Regarding Henry (1991).[8] Many of Ford's major film roles came to him by default through unusual circumstances: he won the role of Han Solo while reading lines for other actors, was cast as Indiana Jones because Tom Selleck was not available, and took the role of Jack Ryan supposedly due to Alec Baldwin's fee demands, although Baldwin disputes this (Baldwin had previously played the role in The Hunt for Red October). 1990s - 2010s Ford in 2007 Starting in the late 1990s, Ford appeared in several critically derided and commercially disappointing movies, including Six Days Seven Nights (1998), Random Hearts (1999), K-19: The Widowmaker (2002), Hollywood Homicide (2003), Firewall (2006), and Extraordinary Measures (2010). One exception was 2000's What Lies Beneath, which grossed over $155 million in the United States and $291 million worldwide.[23] In 2004, Ford declined a chance to star in the thriller Syriana, later commenting that "I didn't feel strongly enough about the truth of the material and I think I made a mistake."[24] The role eventually went to George Clooney, who won an Oscar and a Golden Globe for his work. Prior to that, he had passed on a role in another Stephen Gaghan-written role, Robert Wakefield in Traffic. That role went to Michael Douglas. In 2008, Ford enjoyed success with the release of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, another Lucas/Spielberg collaboration. The film received generally positive reviews and was the second highest-grossing film worldwide in 2008.[25] He later said he would like to star in another sequel, "...if it didn't take another 20 years to digest."[26] Other 2008 work included Crossing Over, directed by Wayne Kramer. In the film, he plays an immigrations officer, working alongside Ashley Judd and Ray Liotta. He also narrated a feature documentary film about the Dalai Lama entitled Dalai Lama Renaissance.[27] Ford at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival Ford filmed the medical drama Extraordinary Measures in 2009 in Portland, Oregon.[citation needed] Released January 22, 2010, the film also starred Brendan Fraser and Alan Ruck. Also in 2010, he co-starred in the film Morning Glory, along with Patrick Wilson, Rachel McAdams, and Diane Keaton.[28] In July 2011, Ford starred alongside Daniel Craig and Olivia Wilde in the science fiction Western film Cowboys & Aliens. To promote the film, Ford appeared at the San Diego Comic-Con International, and, apparently surprised by the warm welcome, told the audience, "I just wanted to make a living as an actor. I didn't know about this."[29] In 2011, Ford starred in Japanese commercials advertising the video game Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception for the PlayStation 3. In 2013, Ford co-starred in the corporate espionage thriller Paranoia, with Liam Hemsworth and Gary Oldman, and directed by Robert Luketic.[30] as well as Ender's Game, 42, and Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues. On February 26, 2015, Alcon Entertainment announced Ford would reprise his role as Rick Deckard in the sequel to Blade Runner.[31] Personal life Marriages and family Ford is one of Hollywood's most private actors,[8] guarding much of his personal life. He has two sons, Benjamin and Willard, with his first wife, Mary Marquardt, to whom he was married from 1964 until their divorce in 1979.[5] With his second wife, screenwriter Melissa Mathison, whom he married in March 1983 and from whom he was separated in August 2001 and eventually divorced, he has two more children, Malcolm and Georgia.[5] Ford and his third wife, actress Calista Flockhart at the 2009 Deauville American Film Festival. Ford began dating actress Calista Flockhart after meeting at the 2002 Golden Globes, and together they are parents to her adopted son, Liam. Ford proposed to Flockhart over Valentine's Day weekend in 2009.[32] They married on June 15, 2010, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, where Ford was filming Cowboys & Aliens.[33] Ford has three grandchildren: Eliel (born 1993), Ethan (born 2000) and Waylon (2010).[34] Son Benjamin, a chef and restaurateur, owns Ford's Filling Station, a gastropub at The Marriott, L.A. Live, Los Angeles, California.[35] Son Willard is the owner of Strong Sports Gym,[36] and was co-owner of Ford & Ching and owner of the Ludwig Clothing company.[37] Back injury In June 1983, at age 40, during the filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in London, he herniated a disc in his back, forcing him to fly back to Los Angeles for an operation. He returned six weeks later.[38] Ankle injury On June 11, 2014, Ford injured his ankle during filming of Star Wars: The Force Awakens. He was airlifted to John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, England.[39] Ford's wife soon traveled from the U.S. to be at his hospital bedside as it was feared that injuries sustained on the set could be worse than previously thought. Doctors suspected that his ankle might have been broken and he might have received a pelvic injury. Producers stated that filming would continue as planned.[40] Aviation Ford in 2010 Ford is a private pilot of both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters,[8] and owns an 800-acre (3.2 km2) ranch in Jackson, Wyoming, approximately half of which he has donated as a nature reserve. On several occasions, Ford has personally provided emergency helicopter services at the request of local authorities, in one instance rescuing a hiker overcome by dehydration.[41] Ford began flight training in the 1960s at Wild Rose Idlewild Airport in Wild Rose, Wisconsin, flying in a Piper PA-22 Tri-Pacer, but at $15 an hour, he could not afford to continue the training.[42] In the mid-1990s, he bought a used Gulfstream II and asked one of his pilots, Terry Bender, to give him flying lessons. They started flying a Cessna 182 out of Jackson, Wyoming, later switching to Teterboro, New Jersey, flying a Cessna 206, the aircraft he soloed in.[43] On October 23, 1999, Harrison Ford was involved in the crash of a Bell 206L4 LongRanger helicopter (N36R). The NTSB accident report states that Ford was piloting the aircraft over the Lake Piru riverbed near Santa Clarita, California, on a routine training flight. While making his second attempt at an autorotation with powered recovery, Ford allowed the aircraft's altitude to drop to 150–200 feet before beginning power-up.[44] The aircraft was unable to recover power before hitting the ground. The aircraft landed hard and began skidding forward in the loose gravel before one of its skids struck a partially embedded log, flipping the aircraft onto its side. Neither Ford nor the instructor pilot suffered any injuries, though the helicopter was seriously damaged. When asked about the incident by fellow pilot James Lipton in an interview on the TV show Inside the Actor's Studio Ford replied, "I broke it."[45] External video Ford's Bell 407GX Ford keeps his aircraft at Santa Monica Airport,[46] though the Bell 407 is often kept and flown in Jackson, Wyoming, and has been used by the actor in two mountain rescues during the actor's assigned duty time assisting the Teton County Search and Rescue. On one of the rescues, Ford recovered a hiker who had become lost and disoriented. She boarded Ford's Bell 407 and promptly vomited into one of the rescuers' caps, unaware of who the pilot was until much later; "I can't believe I barfed in Harrison Ford's helicopter!" she said later.[47] Ford flies his de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver (N28S) more than any of his other aircraft, and has repeatedly said that he likes this aircraft and the sound of its Pratt & Whitney R-985 radial engine.[48] According to Ford, it had been flown in the CIA's Air America operations, and was riddled with bullet holes that had to be patched up.[49] In March 2004, Ford officially became chairman of the Young Eagles program of the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA). Ford was asked to take the position by Greg Anderson, Senior Vice President of the EAA at the time, to replace General Charles "Chuck" Yeager, who was vacating the post that he had held for many years. Ford at first was hesitant, but later accepted the offer and has made appearances with the Young Eagles at the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh gathering at Oshkosh, Wisconsin for two years. In July 2005, at the gathering in Oshkosh, Ford agreed to accept the position for another two years. Ford has flown over 280 children as part of the Young Eagles program, usually in his DHC-2 Beaver, which can seat the actor and five children. He is involved with the EAA chapter in Driggs, Idaho, just over the Teton Range from Jackson, Wyoming. As of 2009, Ford appears in internet advertisements for General Aviation Serves America, a campaign by the advocacy group Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA).[50] Ford is an honorary board member of the humanitarian aviation organization Wings of Hope.[51] On March 5, 2015, Ford's plane, believed to be a Ryan PT-22 Recruit, made an emergency landing on the Penmar Golf Course in Venice, California. Ford had radioed in to report that the plane had suffered engine failure. He was taken to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, where he was reported to be in fair to moderate condition.[52] Ford suffered a broken pelvis and broken ankle during the accident, as well as other injuries.[53] Activism Harrison Ford in 2006 with his Jules Verne Award Environmental causes Ford is vice-chair of Conservation International[54] an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. The organization's intent is to protect nature.[55] The institution tries to combine the services or benefits of science, field work, and partnership to find global solutions to global problems. Three ways CI goes about solving nature-related problems are: 1) identifying and moving to protect locations that are crucial, such as those affecting water, food, and air; 2) working with large companies that are involved in energy and agriculture, to ensure the environment is being protected; and 3) working with governments to ensure they have the knowledge and the proper tools to construct policies that are environmentally friendly. From its origins as an NGO dedicated to protecting tropical biodiversity, CI has evolved into an organization that works with governments, scientists, charitable foundations, and business.[56] CI has been criticised for links to companies with a poor environmental record such as BP, Cargill, Chevron, Monsanto and Shell and for allegedly offering greenwashing services.[57][58] CI has also been chastised for poor judgment in its expenditure of donors' money. In September 2013, Ford, while filming an environmental documentary in Indonesia, interviewed the Indonesian Forestry Minister Mr. Zulkifli Hasan. After the interview Presidential Advisor Mr Andi Arief accused Ford and his crew of "harassing state institutions" and publicly threatened them with deportation. Questions within the interview concerned the Tesso Nilo National Park, Sumatra. It was alleged the Minister of Forestry was given no prior warning of questions nor the chance to explain the challenges of catching people with illegal logging.[59][60][61][62] Ford was provided an audience with the Indonesian President, Mr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, during which he expressed concerns regarding Indonesia's environmental degradation and the government efforts to address climate change. In response, the President explained Indonesia's commitment to preserving its oceans and forests.[63][64] In 1993, the arachnologist Norman Platnick named a new species of spider Calponia harrisonfordi, and in 2002, the entomologist Edward O. Wilson named a new ant species Pheidole harrisonfordi (in recognition of Harrison's work as Vice Chairman of Conservation International).[65] Since 1992, Ford has lent his voice to a series of public service messages promoting environmental involvement for EarthShare, an American federation of environmental and conservation charities.[citation needed] Ford has been a spokesperson for Restore Hetch Hetchy, a non-profit organization dedicated to restoring Yosemite National Park's Hetch Hetchy Valley to its original condition.[66] Ford appears in the documentary series "Years of Living Dangerously", which provides reports on those affected by, and seeking solutions to climate change.[67] Political views Like his parents, Ford is a lifelong Democrat,[68] and a close friend of former President Bill Clinton.[citation needed] On September 7, 1995, Ford testified before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee in support of the Dalai Lama and an independent Tibet.[69][70] In 2008, he narrated the documentary Dalai Lama Renaissance.[71] In 2003, he publicly condemned the Iraq War and called for "regime change" in the United States. He also criticized Hollywood for making violent movies, and called for more gun control in the United States.[72] Archaeology Following on his success portraying the archaeologist Indiana Jones, Ford also plays a part in supporting the work of professional archaeologists. He serves as a General Trustee[73] on the Governing Board of the Archaeological Institute of America (AIA), North America's oldest and largest organization devoted to the world of archaeology. Ford assists them in their mission of increasing public awareness of archaeology and preventing looting and the illegal antiquities trade. Community work On November 21, 2007, Ford and other celebrities, including Kirk Douglas, Nia Long and Calista Flockhart, helped serve hot meals to the homeless at the annual Thanksgiving feast at the Los Angeles Mission.[74] Selected filmography Main article: Harrison Ford filmography American Graffiti (1973)Star Wars (1977)Apocalypse Now (1979)The Frisco Kid (1979)The Empire Strikes Back (1980)Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)Blade Runner (1982)Return of the Jedi (1983)Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)Witness (1985)The Mosquito Coast (1986)Working Girl (1988)Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)Regarding Henry (1991)Patriot Games (1992)The Fugitive (1993)Clear and Present Danger (1994)Sabrina (1995)Air Force One (1997)Six Days Seven Nights (1998)What Lies Beneath (2000)K-19: The Widowmaker (2002)Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)Extraordinary Measures (2010)Cowboys & Aliens (2011)42 (2013)Paranoia (2013)Ender's Game (2013)The Expendables 3 (2014)Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) Awards and honors Ford's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame Ford received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor for Witness, for which he also received "Best Actor" BAFTA and Golden Globe nominations. He received the Cecil B. DeMille Award at the 2002 Golden Globe Awards and on June 2, 2003, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He has received three additional "Best Actor" Golden Globe nominations for The Mosquito Coast, The Fugitive and Sabrina. He received the first ever Hero Award for his many iconic roles, including Han Solo and Indiana Jones, at the 2007 Scream Awards, and in 2008, the Spike TV's Guy's Choice Award for Brass Balls.[75][76] Ford has also been honored multiple times for his involvement in general aviation, receiving the Living Legends of Aviation Award and EAA's Freedom of Flight Award in 2009,[77][78] Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy in 2010,[79] and the Al Ueltschi Humanitarian Award in 2013.[80] In 2013, Flying magazine ranked him number 48 on their list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation.[81] Harrison Ford received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2000.[82] Year Association Category Work Result 1977 Saturn Awards Best Actor Star Wars Nominated 1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Won 1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Nominated 1985 Academy Awards Best Actor Witness Nominated BAFTA Awards Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated Golden Globe Awards Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nominated 1986 The Mosquito Coast Nominated 1989 Saturn Awards Best Actor Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Nominated 1993 Golden Globe Awards Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama The Fugitive Nominated MTV Movie Awards Best Performance – Male Nominated 1995 Golden Globe Awards Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Sabrina Nominated 1997 MTV Movie Awards Best Fight (vs. Gary Oldman) Air Force One Nominated 1998 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture Actor Six Days Seven Nights Won 1999 Favorite Motion Picture Actor Random Hearts Won 2000 Favorite Motion Picture Actor What Lies Beneath Nominated 2009 Favorite Male Movie Star Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Nominated Saturn Awards Best Actor Nominated 2011 Best Supporting Actor Cowboys & Aliens Nominated 2013 Satellite Awards Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture 42 Nominated San Francisco Film Critics Circle Best Supporting Actor Nominated St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Best Supporting Actor Nominated     ebay3206a

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